This page should show a Java applet, which is obviously not supported by your browser.
You could try to change the settings of your browser to allow the execution of Java code, but it may also be possible, that your network connection is configured to block the transfer of Java code.

This small Java applet uses design rules according to [22], [23], and [24], to size a tuned pipe for a 2 stroke piston engine. The calculations are assuming a speed of sound in the exhaust gas, which is not known exactly; also, it depends on the temperature and thus on fuel/air mixture and external conditions. In this applet, the gas conditions for methyl alcohol (methanol) and gasoline have been implemented. The results of the calculations can be used as a good starting point for experiments and fine tuning, deviations of +/-10% are surely possible.

Typical exhaust gas temperatures (can vary strongly depending on exhaust system and engine load):

Gasoline    750 ... 850 K 500 ... 600 °C
Methanol  450 ... 550 K  200 ... 300 °C



  • Measure the timing of your engines exhaust and transfer ports in degrees (see below).
  • Measure the dimensions and calculate the area of the exhaust port opening in the sleeve.
  • Assume the velocity of rotation of your engine in rpm (dreaming doesn't help much though).
  • Either:
    • use the sliders to adjust the values according to your engine, or
    • enter the corresponding values into the text fields and press [enter] to update the graph.
  • Printing and Exporting only works, after you have adjusted the appropriate Java security settings of your Internet Explorer browser. If you use a different browser, you can run JavaPipe as a standalone application which has access to files and printers (see below).
    You could create a hardcopy of the program window, though, using your systems suitable tools.
  • You can manually plot the cones to build a paper model or to transfer the shape onto sheet metal by using the values of R and phi noted below each cone. Plot two concentric circles (having the same center) using the two radii R. The flattened cone spans a segment with an opening angle of phi degrees between the two circles.
  • The Print... command will print a copy of the general arrangement and a scaled view of the cones on a single sheet as shown below:

View of the printout from JavaPipe

  • The Export... command will create three AutoCad compatible DXF files for the two cones plus a side view of the complete tuned pipe. You specify a base file name and JavaPipe appends an extension as shown in the picture to the left.
    Later, you can import these into your favorite CAD program for printing or further processing.


Determining the Timing

 timing.gif (60202 Byte)

The animation shows, how to measure the timing angles of exhaust and transfer port. These angles define how long the ports are open, expressed in crankshaft angle. You can attach a disk with divisions in degrees to the crankcase and a pointer to the crankshaft (or vice versa). See also here.
Then you adjust disk and pointer so that the it indicates 180° when the piston is at its bottom dead center. Now you turn the crankshaft until the port of interest closes (when the piston crown arrives at the upper edge of the port). It is helpful to point a flashlight or a halogen lamp through the plug hole or to remove the cylinder head.
Reading the angles in both directions must be symmetrical to the bottom dead center, e.g. a port opening at at 100° must be closing again at 360°-100° = 260°, as shown in the animation. The port timing angle (shown in blue) is then 260° - 100° = 160°. This means, that port is open while the the crankshaft turns 160°.
Usually the transfer port will have a shorter timing than the exhaust port.


Used Formulas (a mixture from [22], [23], and [24]):

some formulas

(metric units)

The opening angles of the cones should be 4° to 10° for the opening cone and approximately twice this value for the closing cone.

Cut view of a tuned pipe with silencer.

Enlarged view of the muffler section.

see also:
F3D Pylon Racing Engines with some engines optimized for tuned pipes,
Peter Soule's documentation to learn more about the history of tuned pipes for model engines,
my Silencer Application software, including a similar tuned pipe designer.

How to download JavaPipe to use as a standalone Application

Remark:  to use JavaPipe in the standard way in your browser, over the internet, it is not necessary to perform the procedures described in this section. I cannot give much support to solve any problems occurring while running your local copy based on your local Java installation. If you have not already a working Java system on your machine, you might want to consult a computer guru.

If you want to run your local copy of JavaPipe , you can download a copy of the JavaPipe archive to your disk. You can also save the applet page to a local file, depending on the method you want to use for running you local copy.

Step by Step Instructions to download the required files

Last modification of this page: 21.05.18

[Back to Home Page] Suggestions? Corrections? Remarks? e-mail: Martin Hepperle.

Due to the increasing amount of SPAM mail, I have to change this e-Mail address regularly. You will always find the latest version in the footer of all my pages.

It might take some time until you receive an answer and in some cases you may even receive no answer at all. I apologize for this, but my spare time is limited. If you have not lost patience, you might want to send me a copy of your e-mail after a month or so.
This is a privately owned, non-profit page of purely educational purpose. Any statements may be incorrect and unsuitable for practical usage. I cannot take any responsibility for actions you perform based on data, assumptions, calculations etc. taken from this web page.

© 1996-2018 Martin Hepperle
You may use the data given in this document for your personal use. If you use this document for a publication, you have to cite the source. A publication of a recompilation of the given material is not allowed, if the resulting product is sold for more than the production costs.

This document may accidentally refer to trade names and trademarks, which are owned by national or international companies, but which are unknown by me. Their rights are fully recognized and these companies are kindly asked to inform me if they do not wish their names to be used at all or to be used in a different way.

This document is part of a frame set and can be found by navigating from the entry point at the Web site

Impressum       Datenschutz